(1) Distinguish premises and conclusion
(2) Present your ideas in a natural order
(3) Start from reliable premises
(4) Use definite, specific, concrete language
(5) Avoid loaded language
(6) Use consistent terms
(7) Stick to one meaning for each term
(8) Is there more than one example?
(9) Are the examples representative?
(10) Background information is crucial
(11) Are there counterexamples?
(12) Analogy requires a relevantly similar example
(13) Sources should be cited
(14) Are the sources informed?
(15) Are the sources impartial?
(16) Cross-check sources
(17) Personal attacks do not disqualify a source
(18) Does the argument explain how cause leads to effect?
(19) Does the conclusion propose the most likely cause?
(20) Correlated events are not necessarily related
(21) Correlated events may have a common cause
(22) Either of two correlated events may cause the other
(23) Causes may be complex
(24) Modus Ponens
(25) Modus Tollens
(26) Hypothetical Syllogism
(27) Disjunctive Syllogism
(29) Reductio ad Absurdum
(30) Deductive arguments in several steps
(A1) Explore the arguments on all sides of an issue
(A2) Question and defend each argument’s premises
(A3) Revise and rethink arguments as they emerge
(B1) Explain the question
(B2) Make a definite claim or proposal
(B3) Develop your arguments fully
(B4) Consider objections
(B5) Consider alternatives
(C1) Follow your outline
(C2) Keep the introduction brief
(C3) Give your arguments one at a time
(C4) Clarify, clarify, clarify
(C5) Support objections with arguments
(C6) Don’t claim more than you have shown
The Two Great Fallacies
Directory of the Fallacies